Knowledge, Attitude and practice of contraception in Tonk District of Rajasthan

Knowledge, Attitude and practice of contraception in Tonk District of Rajasthan

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Genre: Health and Fitness

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Status: Finished

Genre: Health and Fitness

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Summary

The present study has conducted with the aim to know the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among new couples.

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Summary

The present study has conducted with the aim to know the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among new couples.

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Submitted: September 15, 2012

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Content

Submitted: September 15, 2012

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Knowledge, Attitude and practice of contraception in Tonk District of Rajasthan

By

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  Shilpi chauhan (Research Scholar)

Human Development

Banasthali University

Rajasthan-304022

Abstract- The present study has conducted with the aim to know the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among new couples. With the focus on psychological factors such as satisfaction of basic needs, value orientations and the attitude system as predictors of fertility and contraceptive behavior, this study investigate why some accept and adopt the ideas and means of family planning. While other don’t. Total sample of 50 couples in the range of 18-45 year were selected from two Blocks Newai and Tonk Block of Tonk District of Rajasthan. Interview schedule used to collect information regarding the respondent’s background characteristics. Physical characteristics and fertility and family planning behavior. The data were analyzed by the percentage and other appropriate statistical techniques such as mean will be used for analysis and interpretation depending on nature of data.

Key Words- Family Planning, Practice of contraception among Couples.

India’s current demographic phase is characterized by high fertility and moderate mortality rates. As a result the country’s population is growing rapidly with about 18 million people being added to it annually. To give a 2.1 percent increase per annum.

Family planning is the voluntary planning and action taken by individuals to prevent, delay or achieve a pregnancy. Family planning services include counseling and education, preconception care, screening and laboratory tests, and family planning methods. Family planning methods include abstinence, natural family planning and all FDA approved methods of contraception including hormonal contraception and contraceptive supplies such as condoms, diaphragms and intrauterine devices.

Family planning contributes to the health of mothers and children worldwide by reducing maternal and infant mortality. When wide range family planning services are offered in the context of integrated family planning and maternal and child health care, the health of women and children in that community can be greatly improved.

 

  • In August of 1999, India’s population became the second in the world to reach one billion.

  • Recognizing the need for reducing birth rates, the Indian government has established governmental family planning programs.

  • Although family planning programs in India have improved greatly throughout the country’s history, gender inequality, rooted in cultural norms, continues to cause poor family planning practices nation-wide.

  • 1915- first effort of improvement was made when a family planning clinic was opened in Myosre

  • 1949- First committee was started : Family Planning Association of India

  • With the help of many doctors and professors the first clinic was opened : Kutumb Sudhar Kendra.

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  • 1951- First conference was held in India to discuss Family Planning.

  • First Five Year Plan – under construction during this time. Focusing on child welfare and family planning.

  • Topics: Education in schools, increase number of clinics, access to contraceptives, along with further research.

  • India’s government was one of the first in the world to put into practice a nationalized family program

  • Only country in the world that has a public policy aimed at reducing birth rate in health sector.

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  • The government’s tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007) outlines efforts in three broad areas:

  •  meeting the unmet need for contraception

  •  reducing infant and  maternal mortality

  •  enabling families to achieve their reproductive goals

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  • Health and family planning workers are required to regularly visit households in their assigned area

  • provide information and counsel and motivate women to adopt appropriate health and family planning practices

  • Contraceptives are supplied through the government’s network of health care facilities and with the assistance of NGOs.

Statement of problems- In India Rajasthan state is very big than other. Rural population of Rajasthan has very low status of awareness here the need to understand why people are not persuaded by our slogans and why they want more children and are not practicing contraceptives is imperative. This requires understanding the reproductive’s behavior of our people in its entirety. Once the underlying factors responsible for such behavior are known, it will be possible to device strategies to change such a behavior.

This fact motivated the investigator to take up this research to find out the socio- psycho factors influencing the decision of family planning and contraception and to know the knowledge and attitude of the arguments that the people may use against the practice of birth control problems has been stated as follows- Knowledge, Attitude and practice of contraception in Tonk District of Rajasthan.

Objectives

The present Research therefore has been planned with the following Objective-

  • To assess knowledge, attitude & practice (KAP) of family planning and Contraception.

  • To study cultural, social religions, structural, medical, media expose and other demographical determinants of family planning choice.

Delimitations of the study

  1. The present study will be limit to 18-45 years old and complete their 10 years of marriage.

  2. 50 rural population has been selected from each block

Methodology

This study has been planned on the basis of normative survey method of research, which is fact finding with adequate interpretation in the light of the norms. These survey researches are appropriate for research questions about self reported beliefs or behaviors. Modern developments in this method have also encouraged the application of all types of standardized tools of the investigation along with previously employed methods of observation, rating scales and interview schedule. This information will be presented in qualitative form with qualitative interpretation of the facts.

Variables under study

 Independent

*couple characteristic - age, gender, education, duration of marriage, age at the time of marriage, age of first conception, working status, etc.

*demographical determinants – place of residence (Rural /urban), type of family and household, religion, cast, occupation, income, number of children, sex of children, exposure to media, etc.

Dependent

Knowledge attitude and practice of family planning and contraception 

 Reasons for practice or discontinuation  

Tools for data collection  
 

 Structured questionnaire will be prepared by the investigator to assess general awareness of couples about family planning, adopters and non adopters of contraception and underlying reasons.  Questionnaire will be divided in three sections-

Section A- (Background information) will focus on the couple characteristics andother demographical variables for example age, gender, religion, cast, type of family and household, family size, number of children, sex of children, birth order,  family  education level and occupation ,family income, place of residence (Rural /urban),  exposure to media, etc.

 

Section B- (Assessment of knowledge and attitude towards family planning and contraception) will focus on the concept of  family planning and contraception, most likely time for conception to occur, menstrual cycle, views about family planning and first conception, spacing of children , number of children, sex of children, hazards of unplanned family, advantages of family planning and barriers, importance of birth control methods, sources of getting  family planning information, different types of contraception methods , commonly known contraceptives, uses, side effects, emergency contraception, importance of family planning information and ways to improve the information system.

 

Section C- (Practice of family planning and contraception)will focus on gap between two pregnancies, age of first conception,  number and sex of live children,  decisive authority ,the reasons for practicing /not practicing or /discontinuation of family planning, main reason for not intending to use contraception in the future.

Result

Knowledge & determinants of family planning methods

 

Tonk block

Newai Block

Total (%)

Don’t know any contraceptive method

40

30

70

Know about Family planning

60

40

100

Know about one contraceptive method

20

10

30

Know only traditional methods

10

15

25

 

Table -1 show that total 70 couples of the Tonk and Newai Block don’t know any contraceptives methods. But they want to know more information related to contraceptives. All 100 couples know about family planning but they don’t know at least one contraceptive method of use. Only 25 couples know only traditional methods but they demand to children that is why they don’t practice any contraceptives methods.

Table -2 Awareness of contraceptive methods

contraceptive methods

Tonk Block

Newai Block

Total (%)

Sterilization

20

10

30

Oral Pills

30

15

45

IUD

15

30

45

Traditional Methods

20

20

40

Multiple Choice

10

10

20

 

Table -2 show that the awareness of contraceptives methods among couples. The total number of sample is 100 but only 30 couples know about sterilization. Oral pills was use by only 45 couples, IUD only 45 and traditional methods by only 40 couples. The multiple choices among couples are different only 20 couples believe in tradition methods.

Table- 3 Sources of Information

Mass media

Tonk block

Newai Block

Total (%)

Posters

15

20

35

Radio

30

45

65

TV

25

0

25

 

Table-3 show that the sources of information in family planning. The finding shows that only TV is the best sources to increase awareness among couples. Only 25 couples found in the study they has not use any sources of communication & collect any Information

Table-4 Reason for not Acceptance of family planning

Reasons of not use

Tonk block

Newai Block

Total (%)

Religious Factors

20

30

50

Desire of Son

30

20

50

Risk of any Dieses

15

10

25

Disturbance of monthly cycle

10

15

25

Don’t know method of use

25

15

40

Negative attitude towards contraceptive methods

10

10

20

 

Table-4 show that the reason for not using any contraceptive methods and attitude towards family planning. The finding how that 50 couples don’t use any method by religion methods. 50 couples want more children’s and desire of son, 25 couples afraid to risk of any dieses. 25 women’s are believe that the monthly cycle is disturbed by use any contraceptive methods. 40 couples don’t know any method and they also feel shy to talk with their partner.

Conclusion- lack of awareness, poverty, incentive for undergoing sterilization and convenience were some contributory factor for accepting sterilization than for opting for spacing methods among the tribal under study. Thus, there is a need to promote knowledge and awareness about spacing methods in order to promote their use among thus couple wanting to space children. CMAD since are in reproductive process, they should be encouraged to use contraception not for fertility reduction percent but for better reproductive and child health.

References

1.Bisaliah S. Gowda, G. S. (1981) socio economic profile of family planning adoptors and non-adoptors, journal of the council for social development Vol-II, No-3,4 sep, dec, 1981.p.45-48 

2. Bhatia C.J. (1982) correlates of husband, wife attitude towards family planning in rural Ghana (West Africa) journal of population research est. 1974 Vol-5, No-2 April.p.97-107 

3. Bhayana M. and Kundu S.K. (1991) a study of achievement values of adopters and non- adopters of Family planning with small and large families. The journal of personality and clinical studies. Vol-15, No-2, (1999) p.41-46 

4. Donalseon J.P. (2002) the elimination of contraceptive acceptor targets and the evaluation of population policy in India .the journal of demography Vol-56 ,No-1 march 2002 p.977-110 

5. Debpuur C., Phillips F.J. (2002) the impact of the navrongo project on contraceptive knowledge and use reproductive preference3, and fertility. The journal of studies in F.P. Vol-33, No-2 June 2002 p.141-164 

6. David O. (2008) socio- cultural and norms factors influencing F.P. choices among couples in Indian metropolis Nigeria. The journal of scientific research Vol-23, No-2 (2008) p212-218 

7. Hionidou V. The adoption of fertility control on my Konos, 1879-1959: stopping, spacing or both? Journal of population studies, 52 (1998) printed in Great Britain p. 67-83. 

8. Kumar Pand Gairola L. (1978) au attitudinal and motivational study of early and late adopters of F P among women. Journal of national institute of health and family welfare, New Delhi, Vol-1, No-1 Jan, march 1978 p.79-85 

9. Lakehmi R.G. (1986) effects of education, economic status and occupation on fertility. Journal of national institute of health and family welfare New Delhi Vol-9, No.-1 Jan march 1986 p.42-51 

10. L. Jihong, L.Vlla, Grace W. (2004) factors affecting adoption in china, 1950-87. The journal of demography population studies, Vol-58, No-1 2004 p 21-26

11. Mc Nay K. (2003) why are uneducated women in India using contraception? A multilevel analysis journal of population studies Vol-57, No-1 (2003)p.21-40 

12. David P. 2006 internal migration and contraceptive knowledge and use in Guatemala. Jour4nal of international family planning perspectives Vol-32 ,sep-2006 p.147-159

13. Pathi S., Rasania K.S. and Singh S.  (2004) male involvement in F P practices. Journal of health and population perspective and issues Vol-27, No.-3 July sep-2004 p. 166-172

14.Roy Somnath (1983) introduction of contraceptive in national family planning programme:injectables and implants, journal of national institute of health and family welfare (New Delhi) Vol-6, No-3, Jul, sep 1983 p. 5-24 

15. Reddy H.P. (1986) Accessibility of women to health, family planning and educational services. Journal of council for social development, Vol-16, No-2, 3, June, sept, 1986 p. 88-90 

16. Ringheim Karin (1996) male involvement and contraceptive methods for men: present and future: journal of the council for social development (New Delhi) Vol-26, No-3-4, Sep, dec, 1964 p. 88-99 

17. Reddy M. M. (1984) status of women and family planning behavior among non-adopters .journal of the council social change, Vol-14, No-3 Sep 1984 (India).p. 53-56 

http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/fh/mch/familyplanning/intro.html

http://www2.pathfinder.org/pf/pubs/mod1.pdf

 


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